quarta-feira, 21 de janeiro de 2009

Portulacaria Afra - Noções de cultivo e tecnica por Ramesh Sinha

Artigo de Ramesh Sinha (aficionado amador e amante da especie em Bonsai) que ele proprio produzio para publicar por aqui no Kintall, através de pesquizas e suas experiencias com a especie no seu pais (India) e que gentilmente me enviou.
 As fotos são de projetos do proprio e estão fotografadas em alta resolução(CLICK).
Publico o original ,para não cometer erros de tradução....


Jade on a rock

Jade Bonsai:

Jade is one of the most friendliest tree, when it comes to making a bonsai because, it grow profusely, it can be shaped into any style, and need practically no care. After Adenium, jade is second preference for Bonsai beginners. The best part about Jade is that you can make Jade Bonsai in few months and not years or decades like other trees.

About Jade

Scientific name of Jade is Portulla Africa. It is mainly found in South Africa & surrounding countries where it is also know as Elephant Bush. There is a exciting symbiotic relationship between Jade & Elephant – Jade feeds Elephant which can consume as much as 200 Kg of jade per day, and Elephant helps jade in propagation – as discarded trunk & leaves grow into new Jade plants. It is also called Money plant & considered extremely lucky. In wild it can grow up to 3 to 5 meters tall & can survive in desert like conditions easily. Jim Smith, Jade Bonsai were sold for US$ 10,000 i.e. Rs.4.5 Lakh each.

What kills a Jade plant?

A Jade can survive without water, but over watering will surely kill a Jade. Jade loves full sun, you shift it into a shaded area & it’ll stop growing to grow & will eventually die. During summers when temperature in Ahmedabad shoots to 45 degrees, my Jades are in full sun, enjoying every moment of it & growing like crazy.

Jade love Sandy Soil Mixture for a Jade Plant

You will need a fast draining soil with less of organic mixture. A composition of 80% Sand & 20% manure is just what your Jade will love. If you get River water, than it will extract all the minerals from it & you’ll not have to even fertilize Jade tree. Do not top up soil by Moss or stones, which will increase moisture retention & harm the health wood, the wire can remain for 6 or months, without eating into the bark.
Wiring Tips:

When wiring a Bonsai Tree, keep 3 important points in minds;

1. Anchoring

2. Push / Lift Wiring

Jade – Informal upright style

Brach should be properly anchored to the trunk or ground such that, post wiring the branch does not snap back to its original position. Without anchoring, it will happen in 95% of the case. To anchor, just tie a knot on the main trunk and than go on with wiring the branch. In case of wiring a sub branch, anchor on main branch and so on.

Push/Lift Wiring:

In bonsai to achieve the desired shape, you will have to do either of the following a. Lift the branch or Pull down the branch. Bring the branch to forward position or push it to background. You can do this with help of wiring.

When lifting the branch, ensure that wire comes from Below the branch and do not start with first knot coming form above the branch. This will help branch in growing up.

When Pushing down the branch, ensure that the wire comes from above the branch & do not start the first weave from below the branch. This will help in growing down.

Propagating Jade:

If you want you can try this, cut a healthy branch of a jade tree and let it dry for a week in open, shaded jade. Let the soil to totally dry out, before you water again, if you want a healthy Jade.
Pruning Jade

Remember, the thumb rule in case of Jade plant is - the more you prune it, denser & healthier it becomes. Jade is an evergreen variety of plant and hence you can prune it through the year, however when it gets colder, try to avoid it.

Jade is a cactus variety (without thorns & beautiful round leaves) and hence all the water for summer days are stored in Leaves. If you do not prune your jade plant, the leaves size will be bigger, i.e. it will store more water & eventually the branches will bed towards the ground because of gravity. This is what we actually want in a bonsai, i.e. the branches to bend toward the ground, but not in case of Jade. Because, once the branches becomes heavy & dry, it tends snap so that it can hit the ground & start to grow as a new tree. So keep pruning. Alternatively you can stop watering as a result of which it will loose big fat leaves & grow smaller ones.

Jade – Cascade Style
Wiring Jade:

Bonsai is a good material to grow bonsai via clipping method instead of wiring, because it grows fast. But at the same time, it responds to wiring equally great. Remembers, you can twist a branch more than 180 degrees, which you cannot do is any other plant, because there are no wood in the trunk. I have a Jade plant, where trunk is turned to more than 300 degrees, but do it slowly over period of 2/3 months not bending more than 45% at a time, lesser the better. Because Jade does not have any
place. You will see that even after a week in open air, the leaves will be still green, and pulpy.

If you buy one jade plant, you can make 100 or even 1000 jades from it, in a year time, start your own nursery and make lot’s of money, that’s why it is called money tree.

Just cut a branch, let it dry for few days and then pot it in a sandy soil (up to 90% soil) and wait for new leaves to appear. Do not water till you do not see a new pair of leaves.

Alternatively, you can just prick a leaf, and put is on sandy soil and slightly press it against the soil. Water lightly, once in a week till you do not see a new pair of leaf.

Once the tree is 2 months old, you can shift it to a bigger container containing soil & manure mixture as specified earlier.

Repotting Bonsai:

Unlike other trees, when you repot Jade, you have to be extra cautious because that’s when most of them expire. Stop watering completely 2 weeks before you wish to repot Jade. When the soil is totally dry, remove it very carefully, without disturbing the root ball. Do not repot in winters as jade loves full summer. At time of repotting, remove as may leaves as possible, you can remove even 100% of the leaves. Do not water post repotting, wait for a 3 to 4 weeks till you do not see sign of new leaves, and than start watering. Post repotting, keep it in a shaded place for weeks time and than slowly shift to a sunny place.

About the Author:
Ramesh Sinha is founder member of Ahmedabad Bonsai Club. To know more about his visit http://rameshsinhabonsai.blogspot.com or Join Indian Bonsai group on Facebook. Queries can be mailed at ramesh.jsinha@gmail.com.

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